The Constitution of the United States of America

CONSTITUTION OF THE UNITED STATES

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We the People of the United States, in Order to form a more
perfect Union, establish Justice, insure domestic Tranquillity, provide
for the common defence, promote the general Welfare, and secure the
Blessings of Liberty to ourselves and our Posterity, do ordain and
establish this Constitution for the United States of America.

Article. I.

Section. 1. All legislative Powers herein granted shall be
vested in a Congress of the United States, which shall consist of a
Senate and House of Representatives.

Section. 2. The House of Representatives shall be composed of
Members chosen every second Year by the People of the several States,
and the Electors in each State shall have the Qualifications requisite
for Electors of the most numerous Branch of the State Legislature.
No Person shall be a Representative who shall not have attained
to the age of twenty five Years, and been seven Years a Citizen of the
United States, and who shall not, when elected, be an Inhabitant of that
State in which he shall be chosen.
Representatives and direct Taxes shall be apportioned among the
several States which may be included within this Union, according to
their respective Numbers, which shall be determined by adding to the
whole Number of free Persons, including those bound to Service for a
Term of Years, and excluding Indians not taxed, three fifths of all
other Persons. The actual Enumeration shall be made within three Years
after the first Meeting of the Congress of the United States, and within

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every subsequent Term of ten Years, in such Manner as they shall by Law
direct. The Number of Representatives shall not exceed one for every
thirty Thousand, but each State shall have at Least one Representative;
and until such enumeration shall be made, the State of New Hampshire
shall be entitled to chuse three, Massachusetts eight, Rhode-Island and
Providence Plantations one, Connecticut five, New-York six, New Jersey
four, Pennsylvania eight, Delaware one, Maryland six, Virginia ten,
North Carolina five, South Carolina five, and Georgia three.
When vacancies happen in the Representation from any State, the
Executive Authority thereof shall issue Writs of Election to fill such
Vacancies.
The House of Representatives shall chuse their Speaker and other
Officers; and shall have the sole Power of Impeachment.

Section. 3. The Senate of the United States shall be composed of
two Senators from each State, chosen by the Legislature thereof, for six
Years; and each Senator shall have one Vote.
Immediately after they shall be assembled in Consequence of the
first Election, they shall be divided as equally as may be into three
Classes. The Seats of the Senators of the first Class shall be vacated
at the Expiration of the second Year, of the second Class at the
Expiration of the fourth Year, and of the third Class at the Expiration
of the sixth Year, so that one third may be chosen every second Year;
and if Vacancies happen by Resignation, or otherwise, during the Recess
of the Legislature of any State, the Executive thereof may make tem

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porary Appointments until the next Meeting of the Legislature, which
shall then fill such Vacancies.
No Person shall be a Senator who shall not have attained to the
Age of thirty Years, and been nine Years a Citizen of the United States,
and who shall not, when elected, be an Inhabitant of that State for
which he shall be chosen.
The Vice President of the United States shall be President of
the Senate but shall have no Vote, unless they be equally divided.
The Senate shall chuse their other Officers, and also a
President pro tempore, in the Absence of the Vice President, or when he
shall exercise the Office of President of the United States.
The Senate shall have the sole Power to try all Impeachments.
When sitting for that Purpose, they shall be on Oath or Affirmation.
When the President of the United States is tried the Chief Justice shall
preside: And no Person shall be convicted without the Concurrence of two
thirds of the Members present.
Judgment in Cases of Impeachment shall not extend further than
to removal from Office, and disqualification to hold and enjoy any
Office of honor, Trust or Profit under the United States: but the Party
convicted shall nevertheless be liable and subject to Indictment, Trial,
Judgment and Punishment, according to Law.

Section. 4. The Times, Places and Manner of holding Elections
for Senators and Representatives, shall be prescribed in each State by
the Legislature thereof; but the Congress may at

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any time by Law make or alter such Regulations, except as to the Places
of chusing Senators.
The Congress shall assemble at least once in every Year, and
such Meeting shall be on the first Monday in December, unless they shall
by Law appoint a different Day.

Section. 5. Each House shall be the Judge of the Elections,
Returns and Qualifications of its own Members, and a Majority of each
shall constitute a Quorum to do Business; but a smaller Number may
adjourn from day to day, and may be authorized to compel the Attendance
of absent Members, in such Manner, and under such Penalties as each
House may provide.
Each House may determine the Rules of its Proceedings, punish
its Members for disorderly Behaviour, and, with the Concurrence of two
thirds, expel a Member.
Each House shall keep a Journal of its Proceedings, and from
time to time publish the same, excepting such Parts as may in their
Judgment require Secrecy; and the Yeas and Nays of the Members of either
House on any question shall, at the Desire of one fifth of those
Present, be entered on the Journal.
Neither House, during the Session of Congress, shall, without
the Consent of the other, adjourn for more than three days, nor to any
other Place than that in which the two Houses shall be sitting.

Section. 6. The Senators and Representatives shall receive a
Compensation for their Services, to be ascertained by Law, and paid out
of the Treasury of the United States. They shall in all Cases, except
Treason, Felony and Breach of the Peace, be privileged from Arrest
during their Attendance at the Session of their respective Houses, and
in going to and returning

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from the same; and for any Speech or Debate in either House, they shall
not be questioned in any other Place.
No Senator or Representative shall, during the Time for which he
was elected, be appointed to any civil Office under the Authority of the
United States, which shall have been created, or the Emoluments whereof
shall have been encreased during such time; and no Person holding any
Office under the United States, shall be a Member of either House during
his Continuance in Office.

Section. 7. All Bills for raising Revenue shall originate in the
House of Representatives; but the Senate may propose or concur with
amendments as on other Bills.
Every Bill which shall have passed the House of Representatives
and the Senate, shall, before it become a law, be presented to the
President of the United States: If he approve he shall sign it, but if
not he shall return it, with his Objections to that House in which it
shall have originated, who shall enter the Objections at large on their
Journal, and proceed to reconsider it. If after such Reconsideration two
thirds of that House shall agree to pass the Bill, it shall be sent,
together with the Objections, to the other House, by which it shall
likewise be reconsidered, and if approved by two thirds of that House,
it shall become a Law. But in all such Cases the Votes of both Houses
shall be determined by Yeas and Nays, and the Names of the Persons
voting for and against the Bill shall be entered on the Journal of each
House respectively. If any Bill shall not be returned by the President
within ten Days (Sundays excepted) after it shall have been presented to
him, the Same shall be a Law, in like Manner as if he had signed it,
unless the Congress

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by their Adjournment prevent its Return, in which Case it shall not be a
Law
Every Order, Resolution, or Vote to which the Concurrence of the
Senate and House of Representatives may be necessary (except on a
question of Adjournment) shall be presented to the President of the
United States; and before the Same shall take Effect, shall be approved
by him, or being disapproved by him, shall be repassed by two thirds of
the Senate and House of Representatives, according to the Rules and
Limitations prescribed in the Case of a Bill.

Section. 8. The Congress shall have Power To lay and collect
Taxes, Duties, Imposts and Excises, to pay the Debts and provide for the
common Defence and general Welfare of the United States; but all Duties,
Imposts and Excises shall be uniform throughout the United States;
To borrow Money on the credit of the United States;
To regulate Commerce with foreign Nations, and among the several
States, and with the Indian Tribes;
To establish an uniform Rule of Naturalization, and uniform Laws
on the subject of Bankruptcies throughout the United States;
To coin Money, regulate the Value thereof, and of foreign Coin,
and fix the Standard of Weights and Measures;
To provide for the Punishment of counterfeiting the Securities
and current Coin of the United States;
To establish Post Offices and post Roads;
To promote the Progress of Science and useful Arts, by securing
for limited Times to Authors and Inventors the exclusive Right to their
respective Writings and Discoveries;

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To constitute Tribunals inferior to the supreme Court;
To define and punish Piracies and Felonies committed on the high
Seas, and Offences against the Law of Nations;
To declare War, grant Letters of Marque and Reprisal, and make
Rules concerning Captures on Land and Water;
To raise and support Armies, but no Appropriation of Money to
that Use shall be for a longer Term than two Years;
To provide and maintain a Navy;
To make Rules for the Government and Regulation of the land and
naval Forces;
To provide for calling forth the Militia to execute the Laws of
the Union, suppress Insurrections and repeal Invasions;
To provide for organizing, arming, and disciplining, the
Militia, and for governing such Part of them as may be employed in the
Service of the United States, reserving to the States respectively, the
Appointment of the Officers, and the Authority of training the Militia
according to the discipline prescribed by Congress;
To exercise exclusive Legislation in all Cases whatsoever, over
such District (not exceeding ten Miles square) as may, by Cession of
Particular States, and the Acceptance of Congress, become the Seat of
the Government of the United States, and to exercise like Authority over
all Places purchased by the Consent of the Legislature of the State in
which the Same shall be, for the Erection of Forts, Magazines, Arsenals,
dock-Yards and other needful Buildings;–And
To make all Laws which shall be necessary and proper for
carrying into Execution the foregoing Powers and all other Powers vested
by this Constitution in the Government of the United States, or in any
Department or Officer thereof.

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Section. 9. The Migration or Importation of such Persons as any
of the States now existing shall think proper to admit, shall not be
prohibited by the Congress prior to the Year one thousand eight hundred
and eight, but a Tax or duty may be imposed on such Importation, not
exceeding ten dollars for each Person.
The Privilege of the Writ of Habeas Corpus shall not be
suspended, unless when in Cases or Rebellion or Invasion the public
Safety may require it.
No Bill of Attainder or ex post facto Law shall be passed.
No Capitation, or other direct, Tax shall be laid, unless in
Proportion to the Census of Enumeration herein before directed to be
taken.
No Tax or Duty shall be laid on Articles exported from any
State.
No Preference shall be given by any Regulation of Commerce or
Revenue to the Ports of one State over those of another: nor shall
Vessels bound to, or from, one State, be obliged to enter, clear or pay
Duties in another.
No Money shall be drawn from the Treasury, but in Consequence of
Appropriations made by Law; and a regular Statement and Account of the
Receipts and Expenditures of all public Money shall be published from
time to time.
No Title of Nobility shall be granted by the United States: And
no Person holding any Office of Profit or Trust under them, shall,
without the Consent of the Congress, accept of any present, Emolument,
Office, or Title, of any kind whatever, from any King, Prince or foreign
State.

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Section. 10. No State shall enter into any Treaty, Alliance, or
Confederation; grant Letters of Marque and Reprisal; coin Money; emit
Bills of Credit; make any Thing but gold and silver Coin a Tender in
Payment of Debts; pass any Bill of Attainder, ex post facto Law, or Law
impairing the Obligation of Contracts, or grant any Title of Nobility.
No State shall, without the Consent of the Congress, lay any
Imposts or Duties on Imports or Exports, except what may be absolutely
necessary for executing it’s inspection Laws: and the net Produce of all
Duties and Imposts, laid by any State on Imports or Exports, shall be
for the Use of the Treasury of the United States; and all such Laws
shall be subject to the Revision and Controul of the Congress.
No State shall, without the Consent of Congress, lay any Duty of
Tonnage, keep Troops, or Ships of War in time of Peace, enter into any
Agreement or Compact with another State, or with a foreign Power, or
engage in War, unless actually invaded, or in such imminent Danger as
will not admit of delay.

Article. II.

Section. 1. The executive Power shall be vested in a President
of the United States of America. He shall hold his Office during the
Term of four Years, and, together with the Vice President, chosen for
the same Term, be elected, as follows:
Each State shall appoint, in such Manner as the Legislature
thereof may direct, a Number of Electors, equal to the whole Number of
Senators and Representatives to which the State may be entitled in the
Congress: but no Senator or Representative, or Person holding an Office
of Trust or Profit under the United States, shall be appointed an
Elector.

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The Electors shall meet in their respective States, and vote by
Ballot for two Persons, of whom one at least shall not be an Inhabitant
of the same State with themselves. And they shall make a List of all the
Persons voted for, and of the Number of Votes for each; which List they
shall sign and certify, and transmit sealed to the Seat of the
Government of the United States, directed to the President of the
Senate. The President of the Senate shall, in the Presence of the Senate
and House of Representatives, open all the Certificates, and the Votes
shall then be counted. The Person having the greatest Number of Votes
shall be the President, if such Number be a Majority of the whole Number
of Electors appointed; and if there be more than one who have such
Majority, and have an equal Number of Votes, then the House of
Representatives shall immediately chuse by Ballot one of them for
President; and if no Person have a Majority, then from the five highest
on the List the said House shall in like Manner chuse the President. But
in chusing the President, the Votes shall be taken by States, the
Representatives from each State having one Vote; a quorum for this
Purpose shall consist of a Member or Members from two thirds of the
States, and a Majority of all the States shall be necessary to a Choice.
In every Case, after the Choice of the President, the Person having the
greatest Number of Votes of the Electors shall be the Vice President.
But if there should remain two or more who have equal Votes, the Senate
shall chuse from them by Ballot the Vice President.
The Congress may determine the Time of chusing the Electors, and
the Day on which they shall give their Votes; which Day shall be the
same throughout the United States.

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No Person except a natural born Citizen, or a Citizen of the
United States, at the time of the Adoption of this Constitution, shall
be eligible to the Office of President; neither shall any person be
eligible to that Office who shall not have attained to the Age of thirty
five Years, and been fourteen Years a Resident within the United States.
In Case of the Removal of the President from Office, or of his
Death, Resignation, or Inability to discharge the Powers and Duties of
the said Office, the Same shall devolve on the Vice President, and the
Congress may by Law provide for the Case of Removal, Death, Resignation
or Inability, both of the President and Vice President, declaring what
Officer shall then act as President, and such Officer shall act
accordingly, until the Disability be removed, or a President shall be
elected.
The President shall, at stated Times, receive for his Services,
a Compensation, which shall neither be encreased nor diminished during
the Period for which he shall have been elected, and he shall not
receive within that Period any other Emolument from the United States,
or any of them.
Before he enter on the Execution of his Office, he shall take
the following Oath or Affirmation:–“I do solemnly swear (or affirm)
that I will faithfully execute the Office of President of the United
States, and will to the best of my Ability, preserve, protect and defend
the Constitution of the United States.”

Section. 2. The President shall be Commander in Chief of the
Army and Navy of the United States, and of the Militia of the several
States, when called into the actual Service of the United States; he may
require the Opinion, in writing, of the

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principal Officer in each of the executive Departments, upon any Subject
relating to the Duties of their respective Offices, and he shall have
Power to Grant Reprieves and Pardons for Offences against the United
States, except in Cases of Impeachment.
He shall have Power, by and with the Advice and Consent of the
Senate, to make Treaties, provided two thirds of the Senators present
concur; and he shall nominate, and by and with the Advice and Consent of
the Senate, shall appoint Ambassadors, other public Ministers and
Consuls, Judges of the supreme Court, and all other Officers of the
United States, whose Appointments are not herein otherwise provided for,
and which shall be established by Law: but the Congress may by Law vest
the Appointment of such inferior Officers, as they think proper, in the
President alone, in the Courts of Law, or in the Heads of Departments.
The President shall have Power to fill up all Vacancies that may
happen during the Recess of the Senate, by granting Commissions which
shall expire at the End of their next Session.

Section. 3. He shall from time to time give to the Congress
Information on the State of the Union, and recommend to their
Consideration such Measures as he shall judge necessary and expedient;
he may, on extraordinary Occasions, convene both Houses, or either of
them, and in Case of Disagreement between them, with Respect to the Time
of Adjournment, he may adjourn them to such Time as he shall think
proper; he shall receive Ambassadors and other public Ministers; he
shall take Care that the Laws be faithfully executed, and shall
Commission all the Officers of the United States.

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Section. 4. The President, Vice President and all Civil Officers
of the United States, shall be removed from Office on Impeachment for
and Conviction of, Treason, Bribery, or other high Crimes and
Misdemeanors.

Article. III.

Section. 1. The judicial Power of the United States, shall be
vested in one supreme Court, and in such inferior Courts as the Congress
may from time to time ordain and establish. The Judges, both of the
supreme and inferior Courts, shall hold their Offices during good
Behaviour, and shall, at stated Times, receive for their Services, a
Compensation, which shall not be diminished during their Continuance in
Office.

Section. 2. The judicial Power shall extend to all Cases, in Law
and Equity, arising under this Constitution, the Laws of the United
States, and Treaties made, or which shall be made, under their
Authority;–to all Cases affecting Ambassadors, other public ministers
and Consuls;–to all Cases of admiralty and maritime Jurisdiction;–to
Controversies to which the United States shall be a Party;–to
Controversies between two or more States;–between a State and Citizens
of another State;–between Citizens of different States;–between
Citizens of the same State claiming Lands under Grants of different
States, and between a State, or the Citizens thereof, and foreign
States, Citizens or Subjects.
In all Cases affecting Ambassadors, other public Ministers and
Consuls, and those in which a State shall be Party, the supreme Court
shall have original Jurisdiction. In all the other Cases before
mentioned, the supreme Court shall have appel

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late Jurisdiction, both as to Law and Fact, with such Exceptions, and
under such Regulations as the Congress shall make.
The Trial of all Crimes, except in Cases of Impeachment, shall
be by Jury; and such Trial shall be held in the State where the said
Crimes shall have been committed; but when not committed within any
State, the Trial shall be at such Place or Places as the Congress may by
Law have directed.

Section. 3. Treason against the United States, shall consist
only in levying War against them, or in adhering to their Enemies,
giving them Aid and Comfort. No Person shall be convicted of Treason
unless on the Testimony of two Witnesses to the same overt Act, or on
Confession in open Court.
The Congress shall have Power to declare the Punishment of
Treason, but no Attainder of Treason shall work Corruption of Blood, or
Forfeiture except during the Life of the Person attainted.

Article. IV.

Section. 1. Full Faith and Credit shall be given in each State
to the public Acts, Records, and judicial Proceedings of every other
State. And the Congress may by general Laws prescribe the Manner in
which such Acts, Records and Proceedings shall be proved, and the Effect
thereof.

Section. 2. The Citizens of each State shall be entitled to all
Privileges and Immunities of Citizens in the several States.
A Person charged in any State with Treason, Felony, or other
Crime, who shall flee from Justice, and be found in another State, shall
on Demand of the executive Authority of the State from which he fled, be
delivered up, to be removed to the State having Jurisdiction of the
Crime.

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No Person held to Service or Labour in one State, under the Laws
thereof, escaping into another, shall, in Consequence of any Law or
Regulation therein, be discharged from such Service or Labour, but shall
be delivered up on Claim of the Party to whom such Service or Labour may
be due.

Section. 3. New States may be admitted by the Congress into this
Union; but no new State shall be formed or erected within the
Jurisdiction of any other State; nor any State be formed by the Junction
of two or more States, or Parts of States, without the Consent of the
Legislatures of the States concerned as well as of the Congress.
The Congress shall have Power to dispose of and make all needful
Rules and Regulations respecting the Territory or other Property
belonging to the United States; and nothing in this Constitution shall
be so construed as to Prejudice any Claims of the United States, or of
any particular State.

Section. 4. The United States shall guarantee to every State in
this Union a Republican Form of Government, and shall protect each of
them against Invasion; and on Application of the Legislature, or of the
Executive (when the Legislature cannot be convened) against domestic
Violence.

Article. V.

The Congress, whenever two thirds of both Houses shall deem it
necessary, shall propose Amendments to this Constitution, or, on the
Application of the Legislatures of two thirds of the several States,
shall call a Convention for proposing Amendments, which, in either Case,
shall be valid to all Intents and Purposes, as Part of this
Constitution, when ratified by the Legislatures of three fourths of the
several States, or by

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Conventions in three fourths thereof, as the one or the other Mode of
Ratification may be proposed by the Congress; Provided that no Amendment
which may be made prior to the Year One thousand eight hundred and eight
shall in any Manner affect the first and fourth Clauses in the Ninth
Section of the first Article; and that no State, without its Consent,
shall be deprived of its equal Suffrage in the Senate.

Article. VI.

All Debts contracted and Engagements entered into, before the
Adoption of this Constitution, shall be as valid against the United
States under this Constitution, as under the Confederation.
This Constitution, and the Laws of the United States which shall
be made in Pursuance thereof; and all Treaties made, or which shall be
made, under the Authority of the United States, shall be the supreme Law
of the Land; and the Judges in every State shall be bound thereby, any
Thing in the Constitution or Laws of any state to the Contrary
notwithstanding.
The Senators and Representatives before mentioned, and the
Members of the several State Legislatures, and all executive and
judicial Officers, both of the United States and of the several States,
shall be bound by Oath or Affirmation, to support this Constitution; but
no religious Test shall ever be required as a Qualification to any
Office or public Trust under the United States.

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Article. VII.

The Ratification of the Conventions of nine States, shall be
sufficient for the Establishment of this Constitution between the States
so ratifying the same.

done in Convention by the Unanimous
The Word, “the,” being
interlined between the seventh Consent of the States present the Sev-
and eighth Lines of the first
Page, The Word “Thirty” being enteenth Day of September in the Year
partly written on an Erazure in
the fifteenth Line of the first of our Lord one thousand seven hun-
Page, The Words “is tried”
being interlined between the dred and Eighty seven and of the Inde-
thirty second and thirty third
Lines of the first Page and the pendence of the United States of Amer-
Word “the” being interlined be-
tween the forty third and forty ica the Twelfth. In witness whereof We
fourth Lines of the second
Page. have hereunto subscribed our Names,

Attest William Jackson Go. Washington–Presidt.
Secretary and deputy from Virginia

New Hampshire John Langdon
Nicholas Gilman

Massachusetts Nathaniel Gorham
Rufus King

Connecticut WM SamL Johnson
Roger Sherman

New York . . . . Alexander Hamilton

New Jersey Wil: Livingston
David Brearley.
WM Patterson.
Jona: Dayton

Pennsylvania B Franklin
Thomas Mifflin
RobT Morris
Geo. Clymer
Tho
S FitzSimons
Jared Ingersol
James Wilson
Gouv Morris

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Delaware Geo: Read
Gunning Bedford jun
John Dickinson
Richard Bassett
Jaco: Broom

Maryland James McHenry
Dan of ST ThoS Jenifer
Dan
L Carroll

Virginia John Blair–
James Madison Jr.

North Carolina WM Blount
Rich
D Dobbs Spaight
Hu Williamson
J. Rutledge

South Carolina Charles Cotesworth Pinckney
Charles Pinckney
Pierce Butler

Georgia William Few
Abr Baldwin

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In Convention Monday, September 17th 1787.

Present

The States of

New Hampshire, Massachusetts, Connecticut, MR Hamilton from New
York, New Jersey, Pennsylvania, Delaware, Maryland, Virginia, North
Carolina, South Carolina and Georgia.

Resolved,
That the preceeding Constitution be laid before the United
States in Congress assembled, and that it is the Opinion of this
Convention, that it should afterwards be submitted to a Convention of
Delegates, chosen in each State by the People thereof, under the
Recommendation of its Legislature, for their Assent and Ratification;
and that each Convention assenting to, and ratifying the Same, should
give Notice thereof to the United States in Congress assembled.
Resolved, That it is the Opinion of this Convention, that as soon as the
Conventions of nine States shall have ratified this Constitution, the
United States in Congress assembled should fix a Day on which Electors
should be appointed by the States which shall have ratified the same,
and a Day on which the Electors should assemble to vote for the
President, and the Time and Place for commencing Proceedings under this
Constitution. That after such Publication the Electors should be
appointed, and the Senators and Representatives elected: That the
Electors should meet on the Day fixed for the Election of the President,
and should transmit their Votes certified, signed, sealed and directed,
as the Constitution requires, to the Secretary of the United States in
Congress assembled, that the Senators and Representatives should convene
at the Time and Place assigned; that the Senators

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should appoint a President of the Senate, for the sole Purpose of
receiving, opening and counting the Votes for President; and, that after
he shall be chosen, the Congress, together with the President, should,
without Delay, proceed to execute this Constitution.

By the Unanimous Order of the Convention

Go: Washington–Presidt.
W. Jackson Secretary.

AMENDMENTS TO THE CONSTITUTION OF THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA

________________________________________________________________________

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________________________________________________________________________

ARTICLES IN ADDITION TO, AND AMENDMENT OF, THE CONSTITUTION OF THE
UNITED STATES OF AMERICA, PROPOSED BY CONGRESS, AND RATIFIED BY THE
SEVERAL STATES, PURSUANT TO THE FIFTH ARTICLE OF THE ORIGINAL
CONSTITUTION \1\

__________

Amendment [I.] \2\

Congress shall make no law respecting an establishment of
religion, or prohibiting the free exercise thereof; or abridging the
freedom of speech, or of the press; or the right of the people

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peaceably to assemble, and to petition the Government for a redress of
grievances.
\1\ In Dillon v. Gloss, 256 U.S. 368 (1921), the Supreme Court
stated that it would take judicial notice of the date on which a State
ratified a proposed constitutional amendment. Accordingly the Court
consulted the State journals to determine the dates on which each house
of the legislature of certain States ratified the Eighteenth Amendment.
It, therefore, follows that the date on which the governor approved the
ratification, or the date on which the secretary of state of a given
State certified the ratification, or the date on which the Secretary of
State of the United States received a copy of said certificate, or the
date on which he proclaimed that the amendment had been ratified are not
controlling. Hence, the ratification date given in the following notes
is the date on which the legislature of a given State approved the
particular amendment (signature by the speaker or presiding officers of
both houses being considered a part of the ratification of the
“legislature”). When that date is not available, the date given is
that on which it was approved by the governor or certified by the
secretary of state of the particular State. In each case such fact has
been noted. Except as otherwise indicated information as to ratification
is based on data supplied by the Department of State.
\2\ Brackets enclosing an amendment number indicate that the
number was not specifically assigned in the resolution proposing the
amendment. It will be seen, accordingly, that only the Thirteenth,
Fourteenth, Fifteenth, and Sixteenth Amendments were thus technically
ratified by number. The first ten amendments along with two others that
were not ratified were proposed by Congress on September 25, 1789, when
they passed the Senate, having previously passed the House on September
24 (1 Annals of Congress 88, 913). They appear officially in 1 Stat. 97.
Ratification was completed on December 15, 1791, when the eleventh State
(Virginia) approved these amendments, there being then 14 States in the
Union.
The several state legislatures ratified the first ten amendments
to the Constitution on the following dates: New Jersey, November 20,
1789; Maryland, December 19, 1789; North Carolina, December 22, 1789;
South Carolina, January 19, 1790; New Hampshire, January 25, 1790;
Delaware, January 28, 1790; New York, February 27, 1790; Pennsylvania,
March 10, 1790; Rhode Island, June 7, 1790; Vermont, November 3, 1791;
Virginia, December 15, 1791. The two amendments that then failed of
ratification prescribed the ratio of representation to population in the
House, and specified that no law varying the compensation of members of
Congress should be effective until after an intervening election of
Representatives. The first was ratified by ten States (one short of the
requisite number) and the second, by six States; subsequently, this
second proposal was taken up by the States in the period 1980-1992 and
was proclaimed as ratified as of May 7, 1992. Connecticut, Georgia, and
Massachusetts ratified the first ten amendments in 1939.
—————————————————————————

Amendment [II.]

A well regulated Militia, being necessary to the security of a
free State, the right of the people to keep and bear Arms, shall not be
infringed.

Amendment [III.]

No Soldier shall, in time of peace be quartered in any house,
without the consent of the Owner, nor in time of war, but in a manner to
be prescribed by law.

Amendment [IV.]

The right of the people to be secure in their persons, houses,
papers, and effects, against unreasonable searches and seizures, shall
not be violated, and no Warrants shall issue, but upon probable cause,
supported by Oath or affirmation, and particularly describing the place
to be searched, and the persons or things to be seized.

Amendment [V.]

No person shall be held to answer for a capital, or otherwise
infamous crime, unless on a presentment or indictment of a Grand Jury,
except in cases arising in the land or naval forces, or in the Militia,
when in actual service in time of War or public danger; nor shall any
person be subject for the same offence to be twice put in jeopardy of
life or limb; nor shall be compelled in any criminal case to be a
witness against himself, nor be deprived of life, liberty, or property,
without due process of law; nor shall private property be taken for
public use, without just compensation.

[[Page 27]]

Amendment [VI.]

In all criminal prosecutions, the accused shall enjoy the right
to a speedy and public trial, by an impartial jury of the State and
district wherein the crime shall have been committed, which district
shall have been previously ascertained by law, and to be informed of the
nature and cause of the accusation; to be confronted with the witnesses
against him; to have compulsory process for obtaining witnesses in his
favor, and to have the Assistance of Counsel for his defence.

Amendment [VII.]

In Suits at common law, where the value in controversy shall
exceed twenty dollars, the right of trial by jury shall be preserved,
and no fact tried by a jury, shall be otherwise re-examined in any Court
of the United States, than according to the rules of the common law.

Amendment [VIII.]

Excessive bail shall not be required, nor excessive fines
imposed, nor cruel and unusual punishments inflicted.

Amendment [IX.]

The enumeration in the Constitution, of certain rights, shall
not be construed to deny or disparage others retained by the people.

Amendment [X.]

The powers not delegated to the United States by the
Constitution, nor prohibited by it to the States, are reserved to the
States respectively, or to the people.

[[Page 28]]

Amendment [XI.] \3\

The Judicial power of the United States shall not be construed
to extend to any suit in law or equity, commenced or prosecuted against
one on the United States by Citizens of another State, or by Citizens or
Subjects of any Foreign State.
\3\ The Eleventh Amendment was proposed by Congress on March 4,
1794, when it passed the House, 4 Annals of Congress 477, 478, having
previously passed the Senate on January 14, Id., 30, 31. It appears
officially in 1 Stat. 402. Ratification was completed on February 7,
1795, when the twelfth State (North Carolina) approved the amendment,
there being then 15 States in the Union. Official announcement of
ratification was not made until January 8, 1798, when President John
Adams in a message to Congress stated that the Eleventh Amendment had
been adopted by three-fourths of the States and that it “may now be
deemed to be a part of the Constitution.” In the interim South Carolina
had ratified, and Tennessee had been admitted into the Union as the
sixteenth State.
The several state legislatures ratified the Eleventh Amendment
on the following dates: New York, March 27, 1794; Rhode Island, March
31, 1794; Connecticut, May 8, 1794; New Hampshire, June 16, 1794;
Massachusetts, June 26, 1794; Vermont, between October 9 and November 9,
1794; Virginia, November 18, 1794; Georgia, November 29, 1794; Kentucky,
December 7, 1794; Maryland, December 26, 1794; Delaware, January 23,
1795; North Carolina, February 7, 1795; South Carolina, December 4,
1797.
—————————————————————————

Amendment [XII.] \4\

The Electors shall meet in their respective states and vote by
ballot for President and Vice-President, one of whom, at least, shall
not be an inhabitant of the same state with themselves; they shall name
in their ballots the person voted for as

[[Page 29]]
President, and in distinct ballots the person voted for as Vice-
President, and they shall make distinct lists of all persons voted for
as President, and of all persons voted for as Vice-President, and of the
number of votes for each, which lists they shall sign and certify, and
transmit sealed to the seat of the government of the United States,
directed to the President of the Senate;–The President of the Senate
shall, in the presence of the Senate and House of Representatives, open
all the certificates and the votes shall then be counted;–The person
having the greatest Number of votes for President, shall be the
President, if such number be a majority of the whole number of Electors
appointed; and if no person have such majority, then from the persons
having the highest numbers not exceeding three on the list of those
voted for as President, the House of Representatives shall choose
immediately, by ballot, the President. But in choosing the President,
the votes shall be taken by states, the representation from each state
having one vote; a quorum for this purpose shall consist of a member or
members from two-thirds of the states, and a majority of all the states
shall be necessary to a choice. And if the House of Representatives
shall not choose a President whenever the right of choice shall devolve
upon them, before the fourth day of March next following, then the Vice-
President shall act as President, as in the case of the death or other
constitutional disability of the President–The person having the
greatest number of votes as Vice-President, shall be the Vice-President,
if such number be a majority of the whole number of Electors appointed,
and if no person have a majority, then from the two highest numbers on
the list, the Senate shall choose the Vice-President; a

[[Page 30]]
quorum for the purpose shall consist of two-thirds of the whole number
of Senators, and a majority of the whole number shall be necessary to a
choice. But no person constitutionally ineligible to the office of
President shall be eligible to that of Vice-President of the United
States.
\4\ The Twelfth Amendment was proposed by Congress on December
9, 1803, when it passed the House, 13 Annals of Congress 775, 776,
having previously passed the Senate on December 2. Id., 209. It was not
signed by the presiding officers of the House and Senate until December
12. It appears officially in 2 Stat. 306. Ratification was probably
completed on June 15, 1804, when the legislature of the thirteenth State
(New Hampshire) approved the amendment, there being then 17 States in
the Union. The Governor of New Hampshire, however, vetoed this act of
the legislature on June 20, and the act failed to pass again by two-
thirds vote then required by the state constitution. Inasmuch as Article
V of the Federal Constitution specifies that amendments shall become
effective “when ratified by legislatures of three-fourths of the
several States or by conventions in three-fourths thereof,” it has been
generally believed that an approval or veto by a governor is without
significance. If the ratification by New Hampshire be deemed
ineffective, then the amendment became operative by Tennessee’s
ratification on July 27, 1804. On September 25, 1804, in a circular
letter to the Governors of the several States, Secretary of State
Madison declared the amendment ratified by three-fourths of the States.
The several state legislatures ratified the Twelfth Amendment on
the following dates: North Carolina, December 22, 1803; Maryland,
December 24, 1803; Kentucky, December 27, 1803; Ohio, between December 5
and December 30, 1803; Virginia, between December 20, 1803 and February
3, 1804; Pennsylvania, January 5, 1804; Vermont, January 30, 1804; New
York, February 10, 1804; New Jersey, February 22, 1804; Rhode Island,
between February 27 and March 12, 1804; South Carolina, May 15, 1804;
Georgia, May 19, 1804; New Hampshire, June 15, 1804; and Tennessee, July
27, 1804. The amendment was rejected by Delaware on January 18, 1804,
and by Connecticut at its session begun May 10, 1804. Massachusetts
ratified this amendment in 1961.
—————————————————————————

Amendment XIII. \5\

Section 1. Neither slavery nor involuntary servitude, except as
a punishment for crime whereof the party shall have been duly convicted,
shall exist within the United States, or any place subject to their
jurisdiction.
\5\ The Thirteenth Amendment was proposed by Congress on January
31, 1865, when it passed the House, Cong. Globe (38th Cong., 2d Sess.)
531, having previously passed the Senate on April 8, 1964. Id. (38th
cong., 1st Sess.), 1940. It appears officially in 13 Stat. 567 under the
date of February 1, 1865. Ratification was completed on December 6,
1865, when the legislature of the twenty-seventh State (Georgia)
approved the amendment, there being then 36 States in the Union. On
December 18, 1865, Secretary of State Seward certified that the
Thirteenth Amendment had become a part of the Constitution, 13 Stat.
774.
The several state legislatures ratified the Thirteenth Amendment
on the following dates: Illinois, February 1, 1865; Rhode Island,
February 2, 1865; Michigan, February 2, 1865; Maryland, February 3,
1865; New York, February 3, 1865; West Virginia, February 3, 1865;
Missouri, February 6, 1865; Maine, February 7, 1865; Kansas, February 7,
1865; Massachusetts, February 7, 1865; Pennsylvania, February 8, 1865;
Virginia, February 9, 1865; Ohio, February 10, 1865; Louisiana, February
15 or 16, 1865; Indiana, February 16, 1865; Nevada, February 16, 1865;
Minnesota, February 23, 1865; Wisconsin, February 24, 1865; Vermont,
March 9, 1865 (date on which it was “approved” by Governor);
Tennessee, April 7, 1865; Arkansas, April 14, 1865; Connecticut, May 4,
1865; New Hampshire, June 30, 1865; South Carolina, November 13, 1865;
Alabama, December 2, 1865 (date on which it was “approved” by
Provisional Governor); North Carolina, December 4, 1865; Georgia,
December 6, 1865; Oregon, December 11, 1865; California, December 15,
1865; Florida, December 28, 1865 (Florida again ratified this amendment
on June 9, 1868, upon its adoption of a new constitution); Iowa, January
17, 1866; New Jersey, January 23, 1866 (after having rejected the
amendment on March 16, 1865); Texas, February 17, 1870; Delaware,
February 12, 1901 (after having rejected the amendment on February 8,
1865). The amendment was rejected by Kentucky on February 24, 1865, and
by Mississippi on December 2, 1865.
—————————————————————————
Section 2. Congress shall have power to enforce this article by
appropriate legislation.

Amendment XIV. \6\

Section. 1. All persons born or naturalized in the United States
and subject to the jurisdiction thereof, are citizens of the

[[Page 31]]
United States and of the State wherein they reside. No State shall make
or enforce any law which shall abridge the privileges or immunities of
citizens of the United States; nor shall any State deprive any person of
life, liberty, or property, without due process of law; nor deny to any
person within its jurisdiction the equal protection of the laws.
\6\ The Fourteenth Amendment was proposed by Congress on June
13, 1866, when it passed the House, Cong. Globe (39th Cong., 1st Sess.)
3148, 3149, having previously passed the Senate on June 8. Id., 3042. It
appears officially in 14 Stat. 358 under date of June 16, 1866.
Ratification was probably completed on July 9, 1868, when the
legislature of the twenty-eighth State (South Carolina or Louisiana)
approved the amendment, there being then 37 States in the Union.
However, Ohio and New Jersey had prior to that date “withdrawn” their
earlier assent to this amendment. Accordingly, Secretary of State Seward
on July 20, 1868, certified that the amendment had become a part of the
Constitution if the said withdrawals were ineffective. 15 Stat. 706-707.
Congress on July 21, 1868, passed a joint resolution declaring the
amendment a part of the Constitution and directing the Secretary to
promulgate it as such. On July 28, 1868, Secretary Seward certified
without reservation that the amendment was a part of the Constitution.
In the interim, two other States, Alabama on July 13 and Georgia on July
21, 1868, had added their ratifications.
The several state legislatures ratified the Fourteenth Amendment
on the following dates: Connecticut, June 30, 1866; New Hampshire, July
7, 1866; Tennessee, July 19, 1866; New Jersey, September 11, 1866 (the
New Jersey Legislature on February 20, 1868 “withdrew” its consent to
the ratification; the Governor vetoed that bill on March 5, 1868; and it
was repassed over his veto on March 24, 1868); Oregon, September 19,
1866 (Oregon “withdrew” its consent on October 15, 1868); Vermont,
October 30, 1866; New York, January 10, 1867; Ohio, January 11, 1867
(Ohio “withdrew” its consent on January 15, 1868); Illinois, January
15, 1867; West Virginia, January 16, 1867; Michigan, January 16, 1867;
Kansas, January 17, 1867; Minnesota, January 17, 1867; Maine, January
19, 1867; Nevada, January 22, 1867; Indiana, January 23, 1867; Missouri,
January 26, 1867 (date on which it was certified by the Missouri
secretary of state); Rhode Island, February 7, 1867; Pennsylvania,
February 12, 1867; Wisconsin, February 13, 1867 (actually passed
February 7, but not signed by legislative officers until February 13);
Massachusetts, March 20, 1867; Nebraska, June 15, 1867; Iowa, March 9,
1868; Arkansas, April 6, 1868; Florida, June 9, 1868; North Carolina,
July 2, 1868 (after having rejected the amendment on December 13, 1866);
Louisiana, July 9, 1868 (after having rejected the amendment on February
6, 1867); South Carolina, July 8, 1868 (after having rejected the
amendment on December 20, 1866); Alabama, July 13, 1868 (date on which
it was “approved” by the Governor); Georgia, July 21, 1868 (after
having rejected the amendment on November 9, 1866–Georgia ratified
again on February 2, 1870); Virginia, October 8, 1869 (after having
rejected the amendment on January 9, 1867); Mississippi, January 17,
1870; Texas, February 18, 1870 (after having rejected the amendment on
October 27, 1866); Delaware, February 12, 1901 (after having rejected
the amendment on February 7, 1867). The amendment was rejected (and not
subsequently ratified) by Kentucky on January 8, 1867. Maryland and
California ratified this amendment in 1959.

Section. 2. Representatives shall be apportioned among the
several States according to their respective numbers, counting the whole
number of persons in each State, excluding Indians not taxed. But when
the right to vote at any election for the choice of electors for
President and Vice President of the United States, Representatives in
Congress, the Executive and

[[Page 32]]
Judicial officers of a State, or the members of the Legislature thereof,
is denied to any of the male inhabitants of such State, being twenty-one
years of age, and citizens of the United States, or in any way abridged,
except for participation in rebellion, or other crime, the basis of
representation therein shall be reduced in the proportion which the
number of such male citizens shall bear to the whole number of male
—————————————————————————
citizens twenty-one years of age in such State.

Section. 3. No person shall be a Senator or Representative in
Congress, or elector of President and Vice President, or hold any
office, civil or military, under the United States, or under any State,
who, having previously taken an oath, as a member of Congress, or as an
officer of the United States, or as a member of any State legislature,
or as an executive or judicial officer of any State, to support the
Constitution of the United States, shall have engaged in insurrection or
rebellion against the same, or given aid or comfort to the enemies
thereof. But Congress may by a vote of two-thirds of each House, remove
such disability.

Section. 4. The validity of the public debt of the United
States, authorized by law, including debts incurred for payment of
pensions and bounties for services in suppressing insurrection or
rebellion, shall not be questioned. But neither the United States nor
any State shall assume or pay any debt or obligation incurred in aid of
insurrection or rebellion against the United States, or any claim for
the loss or emancipation of any slave; but all such debts, obligations
and claims shall be held illegal and void.

[[Page 33]]

Section. 5. The Congress shall have power to enforce, by
appropriate legislation, the provisions of this article.

Amendment XV. \7\

Section. 1. The right of citizens of the United States to vote
shall not be denied or abridged by the United States or by any State on
account of race, color, or previous condition of servitude.
\7\ The Fifteenth Amendment was proposed by Congress on February
26, 1869, when it passed the Senate, Cong. Globe (40th Cong., 3rd Sess.)
1641, having previously passed the House on February 25. Id., 1563,
1564. It appears officially in 15 Stat. 346 under the date of February
27, 1869. Ratification was probably completed on February 3, 1870, when
the legislature of the twenty-eighth State (Iowa) approved the
amendment, there being then 37 States in the Union. However, New York
had prior to that date “withdrawn” its earlier assent to this
amendment. Even if this withdrawal were effective, Nebraska’s
ratification on February 17, 1870, authorized Secretary of State Fish’s
certification of March 30, 1870, that the Fifteenth Amendment had become
a part of the Constitution. 16 Stat. 1131.
The several state legislatures ratified the Fifteenth Amendment
on the following dates: Nevada, March 1, 1869; West Virginia, March 3,
1869; North Carolina, March 5, 1869; Louisiana, March 5, 1869 (date on
which it was “approved” by the Governor); Illinois, March 5, 1869;
Michigan, March 5, 1869; Wisconsin, March 5, 1869; Maine, March 11,
1869; Massachusetts, March 12, 1869; South Carolina, March 15, 1869;
Arkansas, March 15, 1869; Pennsylvania, March 25, 1869; New York, April
14, 1869 (New York “withdrew” its consent to the ratification on
January 5, 1870); Indiana, May 14, 1869; Connecticut, May 19, 1869;
Florida, June 14, 1869; New Hampshire, July 1, 1869; Virginia, October
8, 1869; Vermont, October 20, 1869; Alabama, November 16, 1869;
Missouri, January 7, 1870 (Missouri had ratified the first section of
the 15th Amendment on March 1, 1869; it failed to include in its
ratification the second section of the amendment); Minnesota, January
13, 1870; Mississippi, January 17, 1870; Rhode Island, January 18, 1870;
Kansas, January 19, 1870 (Kansas had by a defectively worded resolution
previously ratified this amendment on February 27, 1869); Ohio, January
27, 1870 (after having rejected the amendment on May 4, 1869); Georgia,
February 2, 1870; Iowa, February 3, 1870; Nebraska, February 17, 1870;
Texas, February 18, 1870; New Jersey, February 15, 1871 (after having
rejected the amendment on February 7, 1870); Delaware, February 12, 1901
(date on which approved by Governor; Delaware had previously rejected
the amendment on March 18, 1869). The amendment was rejected (and not
subsequently ratified) by Kentucky, Maryland, and Tennessee. California
ratified this amendment in 1962 and Oregon in 1959.

Section. 2. The Congress shall have power to enforce this
article by appropriate legislation.

Amendment XVI. \8\

The Congress shall have power to lay and collect taxes on
incomes, from whatever source derived, without apportionment

[[Page 34]]
among the several States, and without regard to any census or
enumeration.
\8\ The Sixteenth Amendment was proposed by Congress on July 12,
1909, when it passed the House, 44 Cong. Rec. (61st Cong., 1st Sess.)
4390, 4440, 4441, having previously passed the Senate on July 5. Id.,
4121. It appears officially in 36 Stat. 184. Ratification was completed
on February 3, 1913, when the legislature of the thirty-sixth State
(Delaware, Wyoming, or New Mexico) approved the amendment, there being
then 48 States in the Union. On February 25, 1913, Secretary of State
Knox certified that this amendment had become a part of the
Constitution. 37 Stat. 1785.
The several state legislatures ratified the Sixteenth Amendment
on the following dates: Alabama, August 10, 1909; Kentucky, February 8,
1910; South Carolina, February 19, 1910; Illinois, March 1, 1910;
Mississippi, March 7, 1910; Oklahoma, March 10, 1910; Maryland, April 8,
1910; Georgia, August 3, 1910; Texas, August 16, 1910; Ohio, January 19,
1911; Idaho, January 20, 1911; Oregon, January 23, 1911; Washington,
January 26, 1911; Montana, January 27, 1911; Indiana, January 30, 1911;
California, January 31, 1911; Nevada, January 31, 1911; South Dakota,
February 1, 1911; Nebraska, February 9, 1911; North Carolina, February
11, 1911; Colorado, February 15, 1911; North Dakota, February 17, 1911;
Michigan, February 23, 1911; Iowa, February 24, 1911; Kansas, March 2,
1911; Missouri, March 16, 1911; Maine, March 31, 1911; Tennessee, April
7, 1911; Arkansas, April 22, 1911 (after having rejected the amendment
at the session begun January 9, 1911); Wisconsin, May 16, 1911; New
York, July 12, 1911; Arizona, April 3, 1912; Minnesota, June 11, 1912;
Louisiana, June 28, 1912; West Virginia, January 31, 1913; Delaware,
February 3, 1913; Wyoming, February 3, 1913; New Mexico, February 3,
1913; New Jersey, February 4, 1913; Vermont, February 19, 1913;
Massachusetts, March 4, 1913; New Hampshire, March 7, 1913 (after having
rejected the amendment on March 2, 1911). The amendment was rejected
(and not subsequently ratified) by Connecticut, Rhode Island, and Utah.
—————————————————————————

Amendment [XVII.] \9\

The Senate of the United States shall be composed of two
Senators from each State, elected by the people thereof, for six years;
and each Senator shall have one vote. The electors in each State shall
have the qualifications requisite for electors of the most numerous
branch of the State legislatures.
\9\ The Seventeenth Amendment was proposed by Congress on May
13, 1912, when it passed the House, 48 Cong. Rec. (62d Cong., 2d Sess.)
6367, having previously passed the Senate on June 12, 1911. 47 Cong.
Rec. (62d Cong., 1st Sess.) 1925. It appears officially in 37 Stat. 646.
Ratification was completed on April 8, 1913, when the thirty-sixth State
(Connecticut) approved the amendment, there being then 48 States in the
Union. On May 31, 1913, Secretary of State Bryan certified that it had
become a part of the Constitution. 38 Stat 2049.
The several state legislatures ratified the Seventeenth
Amendment on the following dates: Massachusetts, May 22, 1912; Arizona,
June 3, 1912; Minnesota, June 10, 1912; New York, January 15, 1913;
Kansas, January 17, 1913; Oregon, January 23, 1913; North Carolina,
January 25, 1913; California, January 28, 1913; Michigan, January 28,
1913; Iowa, January 30, 1913; Montana, January 30, 1913; Idaho, January
31, 1913; West Virginia, February 4, 1913; Colorado, February 5, 1913;
Nevada, February 6, 1913; Texas, February 7, 1913; Washington, February
7, 1913; Wyoming, February 8, 1913; Arkansas, February 11, 1913;
Illinois, February 13, 1913; North Dakota, February 14, 1913; Wisconsin,
February 18, 1913; Indiana, February 19, 1913; New Hampshire, February
19, 1913; Vermont, February 19, 1913; South Dakota, February 19, 1913;
Maine, February 20, 1913; Oklahoma, February 24, 1913; Ohio, February
25, 1913; Missouri, March 7, 1913; New Mexico, March 13, 1913; Nebraska,
March 14, 1913; New Jersey, March 17, 1913; Tennessee, April 1, 1913;
Pennsylvania, April 2, 1913; Connecticut, April 8, 1913; Louisiana, June
5, 1914. The amendment was rejected by Utah on February 26, 1913.
—————————————————————————
When vacancies happen in the representation of any State in the
Senate, the executive authority of such State shall issue

[[Page 35]]
writs of election to fill such vacancies: Provided, That the legislature
of any State may empower the executive thereof to make temporary
appointments until the people fill the vacancies by election as the
legislature may direct.
This amendment shall not be so construed as to affect the
election or term of any Senator chosen before it becomes valid as part
of the Constitution.

Amendment [XVIII.] \10\

Section. 1. After one year from the ratification of this article
the manufacture, sale, or transportation of intoxicating liquors within,
the importation thereof into, or the exportation thereof from the United
States and all territory subject to the jurisdiction thereof for
beverage purposes is hereby prohibited.
\10\ The Eighteenth Amendment was proposed by Congress on
December 18, 1917, when it passed the Senate, Cong. Rec. (65th Cong. 2d
Sess.) 478, having previously passed the House on December 17. Id., 470.
It appears officially in 40 Stat. 1059. Ratification was completed on
January 16, 1919, when the thirty-sixth State approved the amendment,
there being then 48 States in the Union. On January 29, 1919, Acting
Secretary of State Polk certified that this amendment had been adopted
by the requisite number of States. 40 Stat. 1941. By its terms this
amendment did not become effective until 1 year after ratification.
The several state legislatures ratified the Eighteenth Amendment
on the following dates: Mississippi, January 8, 1918; Virginia, January
11, 1918; Kentucky, January 14, 1918; North Dakota, January 28, 1918
(date on which approved by Governor); South Carolina, January 29, 1918;
Maryland, February 13, 1918; Montana, February 19, 1918; Texas, March 4,
1918; Delaware, March 18, 1918; South Dakota, March 20, 1918;
Massachusetts, April 2, 1918; Arizona, May 24, 1918; Georgia, June 26,
1918; Louisiana, August 9, 1918 (date on which approved by Governor);
Florida, November 27, 1918; Michigan, January 2, 1919; Ohio, January 7,
1919; Oklahoma, January 7, 1919; Idaho, January 8, 1919; Maine, January
8, 1919; West Virginia, January 9, 1919; California, January 13, 1919;
Tennessee, January 13, 1919; Washington, January 13, 1919; Arkansas,
January 14, 1919; Kansas, January 14, 1919; Illinois, January 14, 1919;
Indiana, January 14, 1919; Alabama, January 15, 1919; Colorado, January
15, 1919; Iowa, January 15, 1919; New Hampshire, January 15, 1919;
Oregon, January 15, 1919; Nebraska, January 16, 1919; North Carolina,
January 16, 1919; Utah, January 16, 1919; Missouri, January 16, 1919;
Wyoming, January 16, 1919; Minnesota, January 17, 1919; Wisconsin,
January 17, 1919; New Mexico, January 20, 1919; Nevada, January 21,
1919; Pennsylvania, February 25, 1919; Connecticut, May 6, 1919; New
Jersey, March 9, 1922; New York, January 29, 1919; Vermont, January 29,
1919.

Sec. 2. The Congress and the several States shall have
—————————————————————————
concurrent power to enforce this article by appropriate legislation.

[[Page 36]]

Sec. 3. This article shall be inoperative unless it shall have
been ratified as an amendment to the Constitution by the legislatures of
the several States, as provided in the Constitution, within seven years
from the date of the submission hereof to the States by the Congress.

Amendment [XIX.] \11\

The right of citizens of the United States to vote shall not be
denied or abridged by the United States or by any State on account of
sex.
\11\ The Nineteenth Amendment was proposed by Congress on June
4, 1919, when it passed the Senate, Cong. Rec. (66th Cong., 1st Sess.)
635, having previously passed the house on May 21. Id., 94. It appears
officially in 41 Stat. 362. Ratification was completed on August 18,
1920, when the thirty-sixth State (Tennessee) approved the amendment,
there being then 48 States in the Union. On August 26, 1920, Secretary
of Colby certified that it had become a part of the Constitution. 41
Stat. 1823.
The several state legislatures ratified the Nineteenth Amendment
on the following dates: Illinois, June 10, 1919 (readopted June 17,
1919); Michigan, June 10, 1919; Wisconsin, June 10, 1919; Kansas, June
16, 1919; New York, June 16, 1919; Ohio, June 16, 1919; Pennsylvania,
June 24, 1919; Massachusetts, June 25, 1919; Texas, June 28, 1919; Iowa,
July 2, 1919 (date on which approved by Governor); Missouri, July 3,
1919; Arkansas, July 28, 1919; Montana, August 2, 1919 (date on which
approved by governor); Nebraska, August 2, 1919; Minnesota, September 8,
1919; New Hampshire, September 10, 1919 (date on which approved by
Governor); Utah, October 2, 1919; California, November 1, 1919; Maine,
November 5, 1919; North Dakota, December 1, 1919; South Dakota, December
4, 1919 (date on which certified); Colorado, December 15, 1919 (date on
which approved by Governor); Kentucky, January 6, 1920; Rhode Island,
January 6, 1920; Oregon, January 13, 1920; Indiana, January 16, 1920;
Wyoming, January 27, 1920; Nevada, February 7, 1920; New Jersey,
February 9, 1920; Idaho, February 11, 1920; Arizona, February 12, 1920;
New Mexico, February 21, 1920 (date on which approved by govrnor);
Oklahoma, February 28, 1920; West Virginia, March 10, 1920 (confirmed
September 21, 1920); Vermont, February 8, 1921. The amendment was
rejected by Georgia on July 24, 1919; by Alabama on September 22, 1919;
by South Carolina on January 29, 1920; by Virginia on February 12, 1920;
by Maryland on February 24, 1920; by Mississippi on March 29, 1920; by
Louisiana on July 1, 1920. This amendment was subsequently ratified by
Virginia in 1952, Alabama in 1953, Florida in 1969, and Georgia and
Louisiana in 1970.
—————————————————————————
Congress shall have power to enforce this article by appropriate
legislation.

Amendment [XX.] \12\

Section. 1. The terms of the President and Vice President shall
end at noon on the 20th day of January, and the terms

[[Page 37]]
of Senators and Representatives at noon on the 3d day of January, of the
years in which such terms would have ended if this article had not been
ratified; and the terms of their successors shall then begin.
\12\ The Twentieth Amendment was proposed by Congress on March
2, 1932, when it passed the Senate, Cong. Rec. (72d Cong., 1st Sess.)
5086, having previously passed the House on March 1. Id., 5027. It
appears officially in 47 Stat. 745. Ratification was completed on
January 23, 1933, when the thirty-sixth State approved the amendment,
there being then 48 States in the Union. On February 6, 1933, Secretary
of State Stimson certified that it had become a part of the
Constitution. 47 Stat. 2569.
The several state legislatures ratified the Twentieth Amendment
on the following dates: Virginia, March 4, 1932; New York, March 11,
1932; Mississippi, March 16, 1932; Arkansas March 17, 1932; Kentucky,
March 17, 1932; New Jersey, March 21, 1932; South Carolina, March 25,
1932; Michigan, March 31, 1932; Maine, April 1, 1932; Rhode Island,
April 14, 1932; Illinois, April 21, 1932; Louisiana, June 22, 1932; West
Virginia, July 30, 1932; Pennsylvania, August 11, 1932; Indiana, August
15, 1932; Texas, September 7, 1932; Alabama, September 13, 1932;
California, January 4, 1933; North Carolina, January 5, 1933; North
Dakota, January 9, 1933; Minnesota, January 12, 1933; Arizona, January
13, 1933; Montana, January 13, 1933; Nebraska, January 13, 1933;
Oklahoma, January 13, 1933; Kansas, January 16, 1933; Oregon, January
16, 1933; Delaware, January 19, 1933; Washington, January 19, 1933;
Wyoming, January 19, 1933; Iowa, January 20, 1933; South Dakota, January
20, 1933; Tennessee, January 20, 1933; Idaho, January 21, 1933; New
Mexico, January 21, 1933; Georgia, January 23, 1933; Missouri, January
23, 1933; Ohio, January 23, 1933; Utah, January 23, 1933; Colorado,
January 24, 1933; Massachusetts, January 24, 1933; Wisconsin, January
24, 1933; Nevada, January 26, 1933; Connecticut, January 27, 1933; New
Hampshire, January 31, 1933; Vermont, February 2, 1933; Maryland, March
24, 1933; Florida, April 26, 1933.

Sec. 2. The Congress shall assemble at least once in every year,
and such meeting shall begin at noon on the 3d day of January, unless
—————————————————————————
they shall by law appoint a different day.

Sec. 3. If, at the time fixed for the beginning of the term of
the President, the President elect shall have died, the Vice President
elect shall become President. If a President shall not have been chosen
before the time fixed for the beginning of his term, or if the President
elect shall have failed to qualify, then the Vice President elect shall
act as President until a President shall have qualified; and the
Congress may by law provide for the case wherein neither a President
elect nor a Vice President elect shall have qualified, declaring who
shall then act as President, or the manner in which one who is to act
shall be selected, and such person shall act accordingly until a
President or Vice President shall have qualified.

[[Page 38]]

Sec. 4. The Congress may by law provide for the case of the
death of any of the persons from whom the House of Representatives may
choose a President whenever the right of choice shall have devolved upon
them, and for the case of the death of any of the persons from whom the
Senate may choose a Vice President whenever the right of choice shall
have devolved upon them.

Sec. 5. Sections 1 and 2 shall take effect on the 15th day of
October following the ratification of this article.

Sec. 6. This article shall be inoperative unless it shall have
been ratified as an amendment to the Constitution by the legislatures of
three-fourths of the several States within seven years from the date of
its submission.

Amendment [XXI.] \13\

Section. 1. The eighteenth article of amendment to the
Constitution of the United States is hereby repealed.
\13\ The Twenty-first Amendment was proposed by Congress on
February 20, 1933, when it passed the House, Cong. Rec. (72d Cong., 2d
Sess.) 4516, having previously passed the Senate on February 16. Id.,
4231. It appears officially in 47 Stat. 1625. Ratification was completed
on December 5, 1933, when the thirty-sixth State (Utah) approved the
amendment, there being then 48 States in the Union. On December 5, 1933,
Acting Secretary of State Phillips certified that it had been adopted by
the requisite number of States. 48 Stat. 1749.
The several state conventions ratified the Twenty-first
Amendment on the following dates: Michigan, April 10, 1933; Wisconsin,
April 25, 1933; Rhode Island, May 8, 1933; Wyoming, May 25, 1933; New
Jersey, June 1, 1933; Delaware, June 24, 1933; Indiana, June 26, 1933;
Massachusetts, June 26, 1933; New York, June 27, 1933; Illinois, July
10, 1933; Iowa, July 10, 1933; Connecticut, July 11, 1933; New
Hampshire, July 11, 1933; California, July 24, 1933; West Virginia, July
25, 1933; Arkansas, August 1, 1933; Oregon, August 7, 1933; Alabama,
August 8, 1933; Tennessee, August 11, 1933; Missouri, August 29, 1933;
Arizona, September 5, 1933; Nevada, September 5, 1933; Vermont,
September 23, 1933; Colorado, September 26, 1933; Washington, October 3,
1933; Minnesota, October 10, 1933; Idaho, October 17, 1933; Maryland,
October 18, 1933; Virginia, October 25, 1933; New Mexico, November 2,
1933; Florida, November 14, 1933; Texas, November 24, 1933; Kentucky,
November 27, 1933; Ohio, December 5, 1933; Pennsylvania, December 5,
1933; Utah, December 5, 1933; Maine, December 6, 1933; Montana, August
6, 1934. The amendment was rejected by a convention in the State of
South Carolina, on December 4, 1933. The electorate of the State of
North Carolina voted against holding a convention at a general election
held on November 7, 1933.

Sec. 2. The transportation or importation into any State,
Territory, or possession of the United States for delivery or use

[[Page 39]]
therein of intoxicating liquors, in violation of the laws thereof, is
—————————————————————————
hereby prohibited.

Sec. 3. This article shall be inoperative unless it shall have
been ratified as an amendment to the Constitution by conventions in the
several States, as provided in the Constitution, within seven years from
the date of the submission hereof to the States by the Congress.

Amendment [XXII.] \14\

Section. 1. No person shall be elected to the office of the
President more than twice, and no person who has held the office of
President, or acted as President, for more than two years of a term to
which some other person was elected President shall be elected to the
office of the President more than once. But this Article shall not apply
to any person holding the office of President, when this Article was
proposed by the Congress, and shall not prevent any person who may be
holding the office of President, or acting as President, during the term
within which this Article becomes operative from holding the office of

[[Page 40]]
President or acting as President during the remainder of such term.
\14\ The Twenty-second Amendment was proposed by Congress on
March 24, 1947, having passed the House on March 21, 1947, Cong. Rec.
(80th Cong., 1st Sess.) 2392, and having previously passed the Senate on
March 12, 1947. Id., 1978. It appears officially in 61 Stat. 959.
Ratification was completed on February 27, 1951, when the thirty-sixth
State (Minnesota) approved the amendment, there being then 48 States in
the Union. On March 1, 1951, Jess Larson, Administrator of General
Services, certified that it had been adopted by the requisite number of
States. 16 Fed. Reg. 2019.
A total of 41 state legislatures ratified the Twenty-second
Amendment on the following dates: Maine, March 31, 1947; Michigan, March
31, 1947; Iowa, April 1, 1947; Kansas, April 1, 1947; New Hampshire,
April 1, 1947; Delaware, April 2, 1947; Illinois, April 3, 1947; Oregon,
April 3, 1947; Colorado, April 12, 1947; California, April 15, 1947; New
Jersey, April 15, 1947; Vermont, April 15, 1947; Ohio, April 16, 1947;
Wisconsin, April 16, 1947; Pennsylvania, April 29, 1947; Connecticut,
May 21, 1947; Missouri, May 22, 1947; Nebraska, May 23, 1947; Virginia,
January 28, 1948; Mississippi, February 12, 1948; New York, March 9,
1948; South Dakota, January 21, 1949; North Dakota, February 25, 1949;
Louisiana, May 17, 1950; Montana, January 25, 1951; Indiana, January 29,
1951; Idaho, January 30, 1951; New Mexico, February 12, 1951; Wyoming,
February 12, 1951; Arkansas, February 15, 1951; Georgia, February 17,
1951; Tennessee, February 20, 1951; Texas, February 22, 1951; Utah,
February 26, 1951; Nevada, February 26, 1951; Minnesota, February 27,
1951; North Carolina, February 28, 1951; South Carolina, March 13, 1951;
Maryland, March 14, 1951; Florida, April 16, 1951; and Alabama, May 4,
1951.

Sec. 2. This article shall be inoperative unless it shall have
been ratified as an amendment to the Constitution by the legislatures of
three-fourths of the several States within seven years from the date of
its submission to the States by the Congress.

Amendment [XXIII.] \15\

Section. 1. The District constituting the seat of Government of
the United States shall appoint in such manner as the Congress may
direct:
\15\ The Twenty-third Amendment was proposed by Congress on June
16, 1960, when it passed the Senate, Cong. Rec. (86th Cong., 2d Sess.)
12858, having previously passed the House on June 14. Id., 12571. It
appears officially in 74 Stat. 1057. Ratification was completed on March
29, 1961, when the thirty-eighth State (Ohio) approved the amendment,
there being then 50 States in the Union. On April 3, 1961, John L.
Moore, Administrator of General Services, certified that it had been
adopted by the requisite number of States. 26 Fed. Reg. 2808.
The several state legislatures ratified the Twenty-third
Amendment on the following dates: Hawaii, June 23, 1960; Massachusetts,
August 22, 1960; New Jersey, December 19, 1960; New York, January 17,
1961; California, January 19, 1961; Oregon, January 27, 1961; Maryland,
January 30, 1961; Idaho, January 31, 1961; Maine, January 31, 1961;
Minnesota, January 31, 1961; New Mexico, February 1, 1961; Nevada,
February 2, 1961; Montana, February 6, 1961; Colorado, February 8, 1961;
Washington, February 9, 1961; West Virginia, February 9, 1961; Alaska,
February 10, 1961; Wyoming, February 13, 1961; South Dakota, February
14, 1961; Delaware, February 20, 1961; Utah, February 21, 1961;
Wisconsin, February 21, 1961; Pennsylvania, February 28, 1961; Indiana,
March 3, 1961; North Dakota, March 3, 1961; Tennessee, March 6, 1961;
Michigan, March 8, 1961; Connecticut, March 9, 1961; Arizona, March 10,
1961; Illinois, March 14, 1961; Nebraska, March 15, 1961; Vermont, March
15, 1961; Iowa, March 16, 1961; Missouri, March 20, 1961; Oklahoma,
March 21, 1961; Rhode Island, March 22, 1961; Kansas, March 29, 1961;
Ohio, March 29, 1961, and New Hampshire, March 30, 1961.
—————————————————————————
A number of electors of President and Vice President equal to
the whole number of Senators and Representatives in Congress to which
the District would be entitled if it were a State, but in no event more
than the least populous State; they shall be in addition to those
appointed by the States, but they shall be considered, for the purposes
of the election of President and Vice President, to be electors
appointed by a State; and they shall meet in the District and perform
such duties as provided by the twelfth article of amendment.

[[Page 41]]

Sec. 2. The Congress shall have power to enforce this article by
appropriate legislation.

Amendment [XXIV.] \16\

Section. 1. The right of citizens of the United States to vote
in any primary or other election for President or Vice President, for
electors for President or Vice President, or for Senator or
Representative in Congress, shall not be denied or abridged by the
United States or any State by reason of failure to pay any poll tax or
other tax.
\16\ The Twenty-fourth Amendment was proposed by Congress on
September 14, 1962, having passed the House on August 27, 1962. Cong.
Rec. (87th Cong., 2d Sess.) 17670 and having previously passed the
Senate on March 27, 1962. Id., 5105. It appears officially in 76 Stat.
1259. Ratification was completed on January 23, 1964, when the thirty-
eighth State (South Dakota) approved the Amendment, there being then 50
States in the Union. On February 4, 1964, Bernard L. Boutin,
Administrator of General Services, certified that it had been adopted by
the requisite number of States. 25 Fed. Reg. 1717. President Lyndon B.
Johnson signed this certificate.
Thirty-eight state legislatures ratified the Twenty-fourth
Amendment on the following dates: Illinois, November 14, 1962; New
Jersey, December 3, 1962; Oregon, January 25, 1963; Montana, January 28,
1963; West Virginia, February 1, 1963; New York, February 4, 1963;
Maryland, February 6, 1963; California, February 7, 1963; Alaska,
February 11, 1963; Rhode Island, February 14, 1963; Indiana, February
19, 1963; Michigan, February 20, 1963; Utah, February 20, 1963;
Colorado, February 21, 1963; Minnesota, February 27, 1963; Ohio,
February 27, 1963; New Mexico, March 5, 1963; Hawaii, March 6, 1963;
North Dakota, March 7, 1963; Idaho, March 8, 1963; Washington, March 14,
1963; Vermont, March 15, 1963; Nevada, March 19, 1963; Connecticut,
March 20, 1963; Tennessee, March 21, 1963; Pennsylvania, March 25, 1963;
Wisconsin, March 26, 1963; Kansas, March 28, 1963; Massachusetts, March
28, 1963; Nebraska, April 4, 1963; Florida, April 18, 1963; Iowa, April
24, 1963; Delaware, May 1, 1963; Missouri, May 13, 1963; New Hampshire,
June 16, 1963; Kentucky, June 27, 1963; Maine, January 16, 1964; South
Dakota, January 23, 1964.

Section. 2. The Congress shall have power to enforce this
article by appropriate legislation.

Amendment [XXV.] \17\

Section. 1. In case of the removal of the President from office
or of his death or resignation, the Vice President shall become
President.
\17\ This Amendment was proposed by the Eighty-ninth Congress by
Senate Joint Resolution No. 1, which was approved by the Senate on
February 19, 1965, and by the House of Representatives, in amended form,
on April 13, 1965. The House of Representatives agreed to a Conference
Report on June 30, 1965, and the Senate agreed to the Conference Report
on July 6, 1965. It was declared by the Administrator of General
Services, on February 23, 1967, to have been ratified.
This Amendment was ratified by the following States:
Nebraska, July 12, 1965; Wisconsin, July 13, 1965; Oklahoma,
July 16, 1965; Massachusetts, August 9, 1965; Pennsylvania, August 18,
1965; Kentucky, September 15, 1965; Arizona, September 22, 1965;
Michigan, October 5, 1965; Indiana, October 20, 1965; California,
October 21, 1965; Arkansas, November 4, 1965; New Jersey, November 29,
1965; Delaware, December 7, 1965; Utah, January 17, 1966; West Virginia,
January 20, 1966; Maine, January 24, 1966; Rhode Island, January 28,
1966; Colorado, February 3, 1966; New Mexico, February 3, 1966; Kansas,
February 8, 1966; Vermont, February 10, 1966; Alaska, February 18, 1966;
Idaho, March 2, 1966; Hawaii, March 3, 1966; Virginia, March 8, 1966;
Mississippi, March 10, 1966; New York, March 14, 1966; Maryland, March
23, 1966; Missouri, March 30, 1966; New Hampshire, June 13, 1966;
Louisiana, July 5, 1966; Tennessee, January 12, 1967; Wyoming, January
25, 1967; Washington, January 26, 1967; Iowa, January 26, 1967; Oregon,
February 2, 1967; Minnesota, February 10, 1967; Nevada, February 10,
1967; Connecticut, February 14, 1967; Montana, February 15, 1967; South
Dakota, March 6, 1967; Ohio, March 7, 1967; Alabama, March 14, 1967;
North Carolina, March 22, 1967 Illinois, March 22, 1967; Texas, April
25, 1967; Florida, May 25, 1967.
Publication of the certifying statement of the Administrator of
General Services that the Amendment had become valid was made on
February 25, 1967, F.R. Doc. 67-2208, 32 Fed. Reg. 3287.

—————————————————————————

[[Page 42]]

Section. 2. Whenever there is a vacancy in the office of the
Vice President, the President shall nominate a Vice President who shall
take office upon confirmation by a majority vote of both Houses of
Congress.

Section. 3. Whenever the President transmits to the President
pro tempore of the Senate and the Speaker of the House of
Representatives has written declaration that he is unable to discharge
the powers and duties of his office, and until he transmits to them a
written declaration to the contrary, such powers and duties shall be
discharged by the Vice President as Acting President.

Section. 4. Whenever the Vice President and a majority of either
the principal officers of the executive departments or of such other
body as Congress may by law provide, transmit to the President pro
tempore of the Senate and the Speaker of the House of Representatives
their written declaration that the President is unable to discharge the
powers and duties of his office, the Vice President shall immediately
assume the powers and duties of the office as Acting President.

[[Page 43]]

Thereafter, when the President transmits to the President pro
tempore of the Senate and the Speaker of the House of Representatives
has written declaration that no inability exists, he shall resume the
powers and duties of his office unless the Vice President and a majority
of either the principal officers of the executive department or of such
other body as Congress may by law provide, transmit within four days to
the President pro tempore of the Senate and the Speaker of the House of
Representatives their written declaration that the President is unable
to discharge the powers and duties of his office. Thereupon Congress
shall decide the issue, assembling within forty-eight hours for that
purpose if not in session. If the Congress, within twenty-one days after
receipt of the latter written declaration, or, if Congress is not in
session, within twenty-one days after Congress is required to assemble,
determines by two-thirds vote of both Houses that the President is
unable to discharge the powers and duties of his office, the Vice
President shall continue to discharge the same as Acting President;
otherwise, the President shall resume the powers and duties of his
office.

Amendment [XXVI] \18\

Section. 1. The right of citizens of the United States, who are
eighteen years of age or older, to vote shall not be denied

[[Page 44]]
or abridged by the United States or by any State on account of age.
\18\ The Twenty-sixth Amendment was proposed by Congress on
March 23, 1971, upon passage by the House of Representatives, the Senate
having previously passed an identical resolution on March 10, 1971. It
appears officially in 85 Stat. 825. Ratification was completed on July
1, 1971, when action by the legislature of the 38th State, North
Carolina, was concluded, and the Administrator of the General Services
Administration officially certified it to have been duly ratified on
July 5, 1971. 36 Fed. Reg. 12725.
As of the publication of this volume, 42 States had ratified
this Amendment:
Connecticut, March 23, 1971; Delaware, March 23, 1971;
Minnesota, March 23, 1971; Tennessee, March 23, 1971; Washington, March
23, 1971; Hawaii, March 24, 1971; Massachusetts, March 24, 1971;
Montana, March 29, 1971; Arkansas, March 30, 1971; Idaho, March 30,
1971; Iowa, March 30, 1971; Nebraska, April 2, 1971; New Jersey, April
3, 1971; Kansas, April 7, 1971; Michigan, April 7, 1971; Alaska, April
8, 1971; Maryland, April 8, 1971; Indiana, April 8, 1971; Maine, April
9, 1971; Vermont, April 16, 1971; Louisiana, April 17, 1971; California,
April 19, 1971; Colorado, April 27, 1971; Pennsylvania, April 27, 1971;
Texas, April 27, 1971; South Carolina, April 28, 1971; West Virginia,
April 28, 1971; New Hampshire, May 13, 1971; Arizona, May 14, 1971;
Rhode Island, May 27, 1971; New York, June 2, 1971; Oregon, June 4,
1971; Missouri, June 14, 1971; Wisconsin, June 22, 1971; Illinois, June
29, 1971; Alabama, June 30, 1971; Ohio, June 30, 1971; North Carolina,
July 1, 1971; Oklahoma, July 1, 1971; Virginia, July 8, 1971; Wyoming,
July 8, 1971; Georgia, October 4, 1971.

Section. 2. The Congress shall have power to enforce this
article by appropriate legislation.

Amendment [XXVII] \19\

No law varying the compensation for the services of the Senators
and Representatives shall take effect, until an election of
Representatives shall have intervened.
\19\ This purported amendment was proposed by Congress on
September 25, 1789, when it passed the Senate, having previously passed
the House on September 24. (1 Annals of Congress 88, 913). It appears
officially in 1 Stat. 97. Having received in 1789-1791 only six state
ratifications, the proposal then failed of ratification while ten of the
12 sent to the States by Congress were ratified and proclaimed and
became the Bill of Rights. The provision was proclaimed as having been
ratified and having become the 27th Amendment, when Michigan ratified on
May 7, 1992, there being 50 States in the Union. Proclamation was by the
Archivist of the United States, pursuant to 1 U.S.C. Sec. 106b, on May
19, 1992. F.R.Doc. 92-11951, 57 Fed. Reg. 21187. It was also proclaimed
by votes of the Senate and House of Representatives. 138 Cong. Rec.
(daily ed) S 6948-49, H 3505-06.
The several state legislatures ratified the proposal on the
following dates: Maryland, December 19, 1789; North Carolina, December
22, 1789; South Carolina, January 19, 1790; Delaware, January 28, 1790;
Vermont, November 3, 1791; Virginia, December 15, 1791; Ohio, May 6,
1873; Wyoming, March 6, 1978; Maine, April 27, 1983; Colorado, April 22,
1984; South Dakota, February 1985; New Hampshire, March 7, 1985;
Arizona, April 3, 1985; Tennessee, May 28, 1985; Oklahoma, July 10,
1985; New Mexico, February 14, 1986; Indiana, February 24, 1986; Utah,
February 25, 1986; Arkansas, March 13, 1987; Montana, March 17, 1987;
Connecticut, May 13, 1987; Wisconsin, July 15, 1987; Georgia, February
2, 1988; West Virginia, March 10, 1988; Louisiana, July 7, 1988; Iowa,
February 9, 1989; Idaho, March 23, 1989; Nevada, April 26, 1989; Alaska,
May 6, 1989; Oregon, May 19, 1989; Minnesota, May 22, 1989; Texas, May
25, 1989; Kansas, April 5, 1990; Florida, May 31, 1990; North Dakota,
Mary 25, 1991; Alabama, May 5, 1992; Missouri, May 5, 1992; Michigan,
May 7, 1992. New Jersey subsequently ratified on May 7, 1992.